Annals of Internal Medicine. In support of their arguments, the authors of the publication cite several previous studies of cloth masks, notably a randomized controlled trial conducted in 2015 and published in BMJ Open, which aimed to compare cloth masks with medical masks.

According to the study, the rate of infections with influenza-like illnesses among health professionals wearing cloth masks was 2.3%, compared to 0.7% for medical masks. However, the results of this study were the subject of a second publication in the light of recent events linked to the COVID-19 pandemic. 

“This trial has been misinterpreted as showing that cloth masks increase risk for influenza-like illness, but it actually provides no evidence on the effectiveness or harms of wearing cloth masks compared with not wearing cloth masks because it had no comparator group without masks. Furthermore, filtration efficiency for the cloth masks used in this study was 3%,” notes Catherine M. Clase’s team. 

The Canadian researchers therefore draw attention to the effectiveness of cloth masks, not with regard to surgical or FFP masks, but rather in comparison to no masks at all.

Before concluding: “No direct evidence indicates that public mask wearing protects either the wearer or others. Given the severity of this pandemic and the difficulty of control, we suggest that the possible benefit of a modest reduction in transmission likely outweighs the possibility of harm.”

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